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Tamaziɣt deg temkarḍit taɣelnawt

( D tarmit n uselmed - Hamid OUBAGHA )

mardi 10 novembre 2009

Deg tallit ay deg yella Dr Amine Zaoui d anemhal n temkarḍit taɣelnawt ay d-tebda termit tamezwarut n uselmed n tmaziɣt deg temkarḍit taɣelnawt n Ldzayer. Ssutren-d medden ad lemden taglizit ed tṣinit dinna. Taglizit iban aṭas ay tt-yetteḥwijin deg yinurar itraren n uxeddim. Ma d taṣinit (chinois) d ilmeẓyen ed telmeẓyin ixeddmen deg tkebbaniyin tṣiniyin yeẓẓan iman-nsent taggara-a deg tmurt-nneɣ. Teqbel-asen temkarḍit taɣelnawt. Ini kan ur yeqbil ara Dr Amine Zaoui ad tesselmed temkarḍit taɣelnawt taglizit ed tṣinit ma ur as-tgi ara amkan i tutlayt taɣelnawt tis snat n tmurt : Tamaziɣt. Yura tabrat tunṣibt i useqqamu unnig n timmuzɣa (HCA) i wakken ad asen-d-nadin aselmad n tmaziɣt deg tmaneɣt ad tt-yesselmed « la BN ». Sakk-in yessumer-d Mass Hamid Bilek s yisem n HCA takti-a i tiddukla tadelsant IMEDYAZEN yellan deg tmaneɣt yesɛan yakan tarmit deg uselmed n tmaziɣt. S wakk-a ay bdiɣ deg meɣres 2005 aselmed. Ihi deg umagrad-a ulseɣ-d d aglam i termit-a : amek ay d-yella uselmed amezwaru n tmaziɣt deg temkarḍit taɣelnawt n tegduda tadzayrit.


Asmi yella Dr Amine Zaoui d anemhal n temkarḍit taɣelnawt n Ldzayer iga-as i tmaziɣt din amkan. Ssutren-d medden ad lemden taglizit ed tṣinit dinna. Taglizit iban aṭas ay tt-yetteḥwijin deg yinurar itraren n uxeddim. Ma d taṣinit (chinois) d ilmeẓyen ed telmeẓyin ixeddmen deg tkebbaniyin tṣiniyin yeẓẓan iman-nsent taggara-a deg tmurt-nneɣ. Teqbel-asen temkarḍit taɣelnawt. Ini kan ur yeqbil ara Dr Amine Zaoui ad tesselmed temkarḍit taɣelnawt taglizit ed tṣinit ma ur as-tgi ara amkan i tutlayt taɣelnawt tis snat n tmurt : Tamaziɣt. Yura tabrat tunṣibt i useqqamu unnig n timmuzɣa (HCA) i wakken ad asen-d-nadin aselmad n tmaziɣt deg tmaneɣt ad tt-yesselmed « la BN ». Mebla leɛḍil, yessumer-d Mass Hamid Bilek s yisem n HCA takti-a i tiddukla tadelsant IMEDYAZEN yellan deg tmaneɣt yesɛan yakan tarmit deg uselmed n tmaziɣt. S wakka ay bdiɣ deg meɣres 2005 aselmed. Wa ɣef wamek ay d-yella uselmed amezwaru n tmaziɣt deg temkarḍit taɣelnawt n tegduda tadzayrit.

Qebleɣ melba axemmem. Nnumeɣ ssɣarayeɣ leqbayel ama s tebṛatin ama deg tzeɣɣa. Maca da ufiɣ-n azal n 15 yinelmaden qrib meṛṛa “ d aɛṛaben ” neɣ d leqbayel ur nessin ula d awal n teqbaylit. . Tlaq-iyi tarrayt tajdidt. Axater leqbayel d tira n tmaziɣt ay asen-sselmadeɣ wamma tameslayt ger cwiṭ ed waṭas ssnen-tt. Meɛna deg termit-a ur ssinen inelmaden-iw ad mmeslayen wala ad arun tamaziɣt. Deg tazwara ur ẓriɣ anseg ara as-kkeɣ : ẓriɣ kan ad yili wamek, ttekleɣ ad d-afeɣ amek. Uqbel akk ad bduɣ sḥeḍreɣ-d deg lbal-iw kra n temsal ay izemren ad sluɣent aselmed n tmaziɣt ilmend n tekta tiberkanin yeẓẓan deg wallaɣen ɣef tmaziɣt ed umennuɣ amaziɣ am temsalt n ugemmay, neɣ tifextin ara yezzuɣren tamsirt n tmaziɣt s annar n weskasi aserti neɣ asnaktan (débat politiques et idéologiques). Am deg tiddukla Imedyazen : tamsirt n uselmed n tmaziɣt ur ilaq ad tt-id-tekcem tsertit wala tasnakta. Friɣ-asent-tt-id seg tazwara. Nniɣ-asen i yinelmaden : macci d tamsirt n umezruy, macci d asarag n tsertit macci d inaw asnaktan (discours idéologique). Tamaziɣt d tutlayt am tayeḍ. Win ay tt-yeḥwajen yebɣa ad tt-yissin aql-i da a rrbeḥ a tafat ma d ayen nniḍen xḍiɣ. Amek ara asen-sfehmeɣ acimi nextar agemmay alatini i wid ay yettwalin deg-s azamul n Fṛansa ed karuh n lislam ? Yili nekni nextar kan imi d win kan ara yessufɣen tamaziɣt ɣer tafat. Ur yeshil ara. Dɣa llan sin neɣ tlata gar-asen segmi walan macci s ugemmay aɛṛab ara lemden tamaziɣt seg temsirt tamezwarut ur d-zzin. Mi kkseɣ uguran-a bdiɣ aselmed s terbaɛt n 13 yinelmaden. Yiwen deg-sen ur yessin taqbaylit.

I waken ad ẓreɣ amek ara asen-lḥuɣ deg uselmed yusa-d ɣer lbal-iw ad ten-steqsiɣ acimi bɣan ad ɣren tamaziɣt. Mkul wa d acu ay t-id-yewwin. Yiwet d tislit “taɛṛabt” deg wexxam n leqbayel : terḥa-tt temɣart-is. Mi ara tettmeslay s teqbaylit nettat ur tefhim tigert teqqar-as kan la theddeṛ fell-i. Tenna-iyi-d ilaq ad issineɣ tabaylit i wakken ur ttiliɣ am waken qqaren yimaṣriyen am uɛeẓẓuɣ ger yiḍebbalen. Yiwet s tadist, tuɣ aqbayli, tebɣa ad tessefreḥ argaz-is : ad d-yenṭeq mmi-s s teqbaylit. Mohamed seg Jijel yetɣaḍ-it lḥal mi ara t-ttwalin leqbayel d aɛdaw yili ɣur-s ur nekki gar-as ed leqbayel ala tameslayt : yusa-d ad tt-yissin. Nekk ay as-yeslemden amek ara yaru ed wamek ara yessefti s teqbaylit aṭas ay d-lemdeɣ fell-as. Ad uɣaleɣ ad d-uɣaleɣ s annect-a mbeɛd. Yusa-d yiwen nniḍen yesɛa Majistir deg tutlayt taɛṛabt. Netta imal aṭas aṭas wul-is ɣer taɛṛabt, yettwali iman-is d aɛṛab kan maca yettnadi ad yissin tamaziɣt i wakken ad d-yaf deg wacu ay tettemcabi ɣer taɛṛabt ed wacu ay deg temgarrad yid-s. Yerna ɣur-s ur yezmir ara ad yissin tidet n umennuɣ amaziɣ ma ur yesssin ara tamaziɣt. Usant-d snat telmeẓyin qqarent tujjya i wakken ad d-ffɣent d tiṭbibin. Bɣant ad lemden tamaziɣt i wakken mi ara dawint amuḍin ur nessin ala taqbaylit ad as-fehment. Yiwen ɣas d imdiyyen aṭas yenna-d ilaq ad tt-issineɣ xater macci d ddin ara iyi-yeskeṛhen tameslayt ttmeslayen yinselmen nniḍen am netta ukud yecrek tamurt, tawenza ed umezruy. Kul yiwen amek : wa imi d tutlayt n lejdud, wa imi yettxalaḍ aṭas leqbayel, kul yiwen amek. Lfayda n umeslay : ɣas drus yid-sen llan ula d “ aɛṛaben “ ay tt-yeḥwajen !

Mi ara xemmeɣ ɣef wamek ara asen-d-baneɣ, skadeɣ kan s amek ara ten-ssiwḍeɣ ad bɣun s tidet ad lemden tamaziɣt ed wamek ara asen-tt-id-sbaneɣ tenfeɛ. Zrigh ad ilin wid ara d-ixaylen Ccix-nsen n tmaziɣt d aqbayli ay d-yeddibaṛkin ɣer lɛaṣima d ajdid, itelleɣ deg taɛṛabt, seg wid yettdafaɛen ɣef tmaziɣt yili yeɛceq yiles-is deg tefṛansist neɣ ahat d “amazigh” ay deg ara sriḥen akṛah n ddin ineslem. Ikliciyen weɛṛen... Maca, nekk ur ḥwajeɣ ara ad tt-leɛbeɣ imi kra din ur deg-i yelli. Luleɣ deg Lɛaṣima, kkreɣ-d din… Ɣas d ameɣnas n tmaziɣt maca am nekk am yidzayriyen akk. Akken nḥafen ay nḥafeɣ, akken ttemḥengasen deg lkiṛan yefrurin ay ttemḥengaseɣ, akken ttneẓman i tculliḍt n uyefki ay as-ttneẓmaɣ. Nekk ẓriɣ annect-a akk irennu acku ay izeddin gar-aneɣ d mi ara walin belli ay yekkan gar-aneɣ ala tutlayt. Taqbaylit ay bɣiɣ ad asen-tt-slemdeɣ d tin ay yes-s nheddeṛ ɣef wayen nessaram ed wayen nettagad, ɣef lqeṛḥ ed lfeṛḥ. D tutlayt n tudert xater ula d nekni d tiṛwiḥin. Taqbaylit macci kan d tameslayt ay ɣef heddṛen Leqbayel melba ma hedṛen-tt…

Beḍḍu n yermuden : Ɛerḍeɣ ad bnuɣ tarrayt uselmed am wakk-a. Deg yal tamsirt ad yebḍu uselmed d irmuden ay deg ara lemden ilugan n tira n tmaziɣt, ilugan n ususru, ilugan n theṛṛumt, amawal ed yiferdisen imezwura n tmeslayt. Seg tama nniḍen seg temsirt ɣer tayeḍ ad snin deg mkul armud azrar ar taggara n welmad. Azrar n tjeṛṛumt, azrar n yilugan n tira, azrar n umawal, atg… S yilugan n tira ad semgirrden ger wamek yettaru ed wamek ineṭṭeq maca ilaq ad fehmen anseg ay d-yekka ulugen. S yilugan n tjeṛṛumt ara lemden amek ara gen i mkul awal tamkant deg tefyirt ed wamek ara lemden lebni n tefyirt. Yuɣ lḥal deg tiddukla IMEDYAZEN ur neqqim ara deg tira n temsiselt neɣ n tesnislit (phonétique / phonologique). Nmal aṭas s aslugenn tira s tjeṛṛumt (grammatisation de l’orthographe). Llan yilugan n tira ay d-yekkan seg tjeṛṛumt. Yella wassaɣ. Tegra-d s amawal ed tmeslayt : ɛerḍeɣ ad bnuɣ aselmed s tenfaliyin yezgan deg tmeslayt n kullass ed wawalen ara d-iteddun deg yeḍrisen. D acu kan ur yeffiɣ ara fell-i ad asen-d-ḍeggṛeɣ aḍris sakin ad as-iniɣ akk-a ara nnamen. Smenyafeɣ ad bnuɣ ma wɛiɣ mkul aḍris s wayen ssnen ya ad rnuɣ ɣer-s kra d amaynut akken ara yebleɛ macci akken ara yaqeɛ ! Deg mkul tamsirt ilaq ad lemden kra seg yilugan n tira, kra n yilugan n tjeṛṛumt, kra n tenfaliyin (askasi) ed yilugan n ususru (prononciation). Deg mkul tamsirt ttemkemmalen yermuden-a gar-asen.

Tarrayt n uselmed : Ur ɣriɣ ara tussniwin n uselmed maca cubaɣ tarmit-a s amek ay iyi-slemden tusnakt. Llan sin yiberdan : yiwen d asenni n tekta ta tbennu s tid ay tt-yezwaren. Abrid nniḍen d win n : ḍeggeṛ-it s aman ad yissin ad iɛum. Amezwaru ɣef-s ay yebna uɣerbaz afransis (win nettabaɛ nekni). Wayeḍ qqaren-as kra “aɣerbaz amarikani”. Netta, d aɣerbaz afṛansis ay ijehden deg tusnakt yerna s tekta-is ay lemdeɣ nekk deg tesdawit. Yella lebni “Algorithmique” yella lebni “Empirique”. Nekk smenyafeɣ amezwaru acku smenyafeɣ almad s tekta wala almad n ccfawa. Bniɣ tamsirt tamezwarut s tekta-a.

Tamsirt tamezwarut : Heyyaɣ-d tamsirt tamezwarut ɣef ugemmay, tcebbeḥ s wunuɣen ed yiniyen (dessins coloriés) ccuṛen-tt 20 yisebtar imeqqranen. Meɛna ssutren-iyi-d ad d-awiɣ awal ɣas s tewzel ɣef umezruy n tutlayt n lejdud-nsen. Ddiɣ-asen deg lebɣi yerna furṣeɣ tagnit i wakken ad nesseɣti kra n tekta tuzligin yesseɛraqen i tarwa n Ldzayer abrid ɣer laṣel. D amedya : ur ẓrin ara belli tlata leqrun mbeɛd mi tuɣal Tmazɣa d tineslemt qrib yiwen ur yettmeslay taɛṛabt deg tmurt-a. Yesteqsa-iyi-d yiwen unelmad yenna-iyi : acimi uɣalen imezwura-nneɣ d aɛṛaben ? Nniɣ-as am wakken nḥeqqer nekni ass-a kra n wayen yellan d adzayri. Axater nekni s yidzayriyen nrennu lhiba ed ccan i ubeṛṛani ntekkes-itt i yidles-nneɣ... Ihi awi yufan, nekni d arraw n wass-a ilaq ad nbeddel tikli.

Alugen n tira deg temsirt tamezwarut ihi d wid n ugemmay : isekkilen ed wamek neṭṭqen. Deg wermud n tjeṛṛumt, alugen ay deg nezwar d lebni n wunti ay d-itekken seg umalay (masculin / féminin). Iban : unti = t + amalay + t. Ulac tasureft ! Seg-s alugen n ususru ara d-yeɣren …ḍt ==> ṭ neɣ dt ==> ṭ. Sin yisental deg wermud n umawal d win n wakud ed win n twacult. Semmi-ten-id ad tafeḍ sebɛa wussan : ass-a, azekka, seldazekka, sellawseldazekka, iḍelli seldiḍelli, sellawseldiḍelli. Iseggasen kifkif : aseggas-a, qabel, wabel, ilindi, seldilindi, sellawseldilindi, rnu ɣer-s akaḍani, akamira, ass yecban ass-a, ass yecban ass-n… Wa akk mebla ma neckem deg ttfaṣil n beḍḍu n wakud i tfellaḥt… Ur nesfugul ara Yennayer kan akk-a ! Asentel wis sin d asentel n twacult acku zik nekni d timetti yesswayen aẓar n yidammen. Mkul wa deg twacult tsemma-t-id tutlayt-nneɣ. Yefka-as yidles tawuri-is deg tmetti. Nger tamawt am nekk am nitni yella deg umawal n twacult wayen ay aɣ-icerken deg tmeslayt timezgit (courrante) n usemmi n uẓar. Armi ay d-tenna yiwet : “ immala kima lɛeṛbiyya ”. Sfehmeɣ-as belli kra d awalen n tmaziɣt ɣas qqaren-ten ula d nitni kra d d awalen yesɛan lqaleb n tmaziɣt. S ti ay ttfaqen d imaziɣen ay llan deg laṣel ɣas d aɛṛaben s yiles. Nniɣ-as deg wul-iw kan ɣas ur ḥemmleɣ ara ad bnuɣ axxam n ṛṛmel ɣef yiri n lebḥer meɛma ahat am wakken yeqqar umedyaz : “ D tin ay tinelli ara ken-id-yerren “… Nkemmel tamsirt s tenfaliyin n westeqsi ed tririt uqbel ad nebdu iluɣma. Nekka deg temsirt-a 35 n wussan nessuli-tt s yiwen weḍris ay d-ɣran weḥd-sen ay fehmen qrib weḥd-sen. Aḍris d wa :

Nekka 35 wussan deg temsirt tamezwarut d azal n xemseṭṭac n tsaɛtin. Ssawḍen yinelmaden ur nessin awal n teqbaylit ad fehmen, ad d-ɣren weḥd-sen aḍris-a : Arraw n Dda Ceɛban : Yazid yezdeɣ deg Ldzayer. Zedɣen deg xemsa yid-sen deg wexxam : netta, baba-s, yemma-s, gma-s ed weltma-s. Baba-s, isem-is Ceɛban. Yemma-s isem-is Weṛdiyya. Gma-s isem-is Belɛid. Ma d weltma-s isem-is Malika. Axxam-nsen d amecṭuḥ. ḍeyqen. Snat texxamin kan ay sɛan. Dda Ceɛban ixeddem aṭaksi. Yelli-s txeddem deg sbiṭaṛ. Belɛid yessenhaṛ aṭruli. Ma d Yazid meskin : ur ixeddem ur igeddem. Segmi yexṣer lbak, yettaṭṭaf kan llḥiḍ ammar ad d-yeɣli. Meskin yettargu kan ad yezger lebḥeṛ. Aḥlil !

D acu ay bɣiɣ ad t-issinen ed wamek ? Zriɣ s tlata tsaɛtin deg dduṛt, ur zmireɣ ara ad ssirmeɣ aṭas. Yerna, zriɣ mi ara ad ffɣen kan seg temsirt ur d-ttafen ara iman-nsen deg wennar ay deg ara sleɣmin iman-nsen, ad sxedmen ayen lemden. Ur telli teqbaylit deg yiberdan, ur telli deg leswaq, ur telli deg tilivizyu, ur yelli wanda … Tenna-iyi-d yiwet tnelmadt d taɛṛabt : “ Ula d tiqbayliyin ssneɣ d tijiratin-iw ttihint fell-i mi ara asent-iniɣ aql-iyi ɣɣareɣ tamaziɣt, qqarent-iyi-d akk : D acu ara txedmeḍ yes-s ? Tettḍeyyiɛeḍ kan lweqt-im ”. Mi ara d-tekk sɣur teqbayliyin ula ay nini. Ihi ur bɣiɣ ara ad asenfaṛ smeɣreɣ deg wallaɣ-iw. Ma yella deg ttesɛa wayyuren ssawḍen ad d-inin (yerna zemren ad t-arun) s teqbaylit ayen tteḥwijin medden deg tudert n kullass, s tefyirin timecṭuḥin, s umawal ur neffal ara i walef neɣ 1500 n wawalen : d ayen ifazen. I wakken ad zemren i weswir adday (minimal) am wa ilaq ad iyi-banen yiferdisen n tmussni ed wamek ara msetbaɛen. Deg yermuden-nni d win n uselmed n tira ay iyi-d-ibanen d ushil gar-asen imi yettabaɛ kan imenzayen imezwura n tira ed yilugan ara d-yekken seg tjeṛṛumt. Ma d amawal ad yettaf amkan-is deg yeskasiyen ed yiluɣma. Fell-asen ara d-nawi awal da.

Azrar n tjeṛṛumt : S yisem ed tzelɣa n tilawt nezmer ad nebnu tafyirt ur nli amyag. Nezmer sakin am deg temsirt tamezwarut ad nebnu unti seg umalay, neɣ ad d-nekkes amalay seg wunti yebnan s umalay. Syin ad nɛeddi s isegtan. Yella wesget alugan : a… ==> i…en neɣ u…  u…en. Maca mliɣ-asen isegtan nniḍen s yimedyaten. Ma nerna-d tanzeɣt n tuqqna nezmer ad nebnu tafyirt s tlata yismawen : amcic ed uɣerda d aɛdawen… Ad ters kan tenzeɣt n tuqqna ger sin yismawen ad d-tban tekti n umaruz. Yerna ad nfaṛes tagnit i wakken ad nsemgirred ger tenzeɣt n tuqqna ed tzelɣa n tilawt. Sakin d aglam kan ara d-neglem ilugan n lebni n umaruz. Wi banen. Ad nɛeddi sakin s iwṣilen n yisem. Ad issinen dinna imqimen yeqqnen s isem ed ulugen n tira ay ten-iteqqnen ɣer-sen s tezdit. Yuɣ lḥal ad ilin yemqimen ilelliyen ddan-d yakan deg umawal. Ad d-tas imir nnuba n wemyag. Ad ilin yinelmaden mlalen-d imyagen yeftin deg yeskasiyen iwezzlanen ay nxeddem deg wermud n tenfalit timawit, neɣ deg yeḍrisen yezrin. Ad nezwir deg tseftit. Taseftit nexdem d tin n yemyagen isehlen at tlata tergalin ur nli tiɣra. Nerna-as kra n yemyagen ur nellugen am : ili, awi, ekk, ecc, nadi… Mi ḥefḍen tifelwiyin n tseftit nezmer ad nebnu tifyirin ay deg ara yilin yemyagen ed yismawen ed tenzaɣ. I wakken ad neddu yiwet yiwet, nezwar s tefyirt ay deg yella wemyag ed sin yismawen. Yiwen yisem d ameggay wayeḍ d asemmad i wakken ad d-tban yiwet tegnit ay deg yettarez yisem. Mi ara d-nernu tinzaɣ ad d-tban tis snat. Ma nerna-d amḍan ad d-tban tis tlata. S wakka ad fehmen melmi nettarez isem wamma amek neẓra yakan. Mi nezrew tinzaɣ nessedda-d iwṣilen-is. Nezmer sakin ad nɛeddi s iwṣilen n wemyag. Llan yemqimen llant tzelɣiwin n tnila. Imqimen ad ilin wusriden ed warusriden. Zwareɣ deg tzelɣiwin n tnila. Ɣas d ayen ur nelli deg taɛṛabt wala tafṛansist wala taglizit ssawḍen fehmen anamek-nsent d melmi laqent. Alugen n tira d ushil : d tuqqna s tezdit s amyag yeftin. Nqeddem sakin s imqimen usriden. Da am deg kra n tegnatin nniḍen nudaɣ ad asen-ssisehleɣ almad. Takti-a n usishel tessaweḍ-iyi ad as-ɛiwdeɣ leḥsab s teqbaylit i tlugant n tira ay nessexdam deg tiddukla Imedyazen. Tesfaq-aɣ-d temsalt-a ɣef waṭas n ttfaṣil n tira n tmaziɣt ay wumi nɛawed tamuli s wadda. Ad uɣaleɣ ad d-uɣaleɣ s annect-a deg taggara n umagrad maca ad d-bedreɣ kan amedya. Uqbel ad asen-geɣ tamsirt ɣef tenzaɣ deg teqbaylit, ufiɣ umuɣ-nsent meqqer melba lmeɛna acku llant tid yesɛan yiwen unamek ala asusru ay deg mgarrdent : d asusru ay ibeḍḍun taqbaylit deg tira. Amedya : di / deg / gg… yiwet-nsent. Ɣas ma ilaq ulugen n ususru, iban : deg + targalt  [ di ]. Llant tiyaḍ : seg / si, ɣef / ef, ihi ti akk nemsefham deg tiddukla ad tent-nesdukel deg yiwet “Deg”, “Seg”. Am temsalt n yemqimen imeskanen : -agi / -ayi / -agini / -agikana / -aginikat… ṛuḥ tura kecc fru-tt. Ihi, nekk nniɣ-as lukan ad asen-d-ḍerḥeɣ agejdur-a n yemqimen, yili yiwen-nsen akk deg unamek, d aserwel kan ara ten-srewleɣ ɣef welmad n teqbaylit. Ihi deg tira sdukleɣ-ten akk deg talɣa tawezzlant : -a. Sakin mkul wa ad d-iɣer am wakken ay as-d-yehwa ma deg tira : yiwet talɣa kan. Ad nuɣal ihi s azrar-nni n tjeṛṛumt, mi d-newweḍ s imqimen usriden iwṣilen n wemyag. Nebḍa lxedma ɣef sin. Deg tmezwarut ad yili wemqim usrid d awṣil awḥid n wemyag. Mi lemden umuɣ n yemqimen usriden, ad nezrew tafyirt ay deg ara yeqqen s amyag wemqim usrid ed tzelɣa n tnila. Ad nsers sakin alugen n wemyezwer gar-asen ɣer tuqqna s amyag. Mi nfuk nɛedda s imqimen arusriden. Da daɣen, ma nura-ten akken ay ten-id-nneṭṭeq ad neccaṛ akufi acku ttbeddilen s wamek yettfak wemyag yeftin : ma d tiɣri neɣ d targalt. Netta ma nebɣa asishel, nezmer ad nessishel tira sakin ad neglem ilugan n usuru. S wakka umuɣ n yemqimen arusriden ara lemden ad yiwzil : ad ifsusen i welmad. Yerna amgirred deg ususru ur yewwi ur yerri deg tjeṛṛumt. S wakken ɣas ad arun : “ yefka-as ” ad t-id-ɣren s sshala : “ yefka-yas ” amqim d “as” daymen macci tikwal d “as” tikwak “yas” tikwal d “s”… Sakin ad nebnu tifyirin ay deg ara qqnen s amyag tlata yewṣilen : amqim usrid, amqim arusrid ed tzelɣa n tnila. Ad d-nesban daɣen ula da alugen n tuqqna s tezdit ed win n wemyezwer. Iferdisen nniḍen n tjeṛṛumt ur d-ssuturen ara ugar n ljehd ed leɛtab… Akken yebɣu yili d ahil ay yessawḍen xerṣum kra ad issinen llsisan imezwura ay yes ara bnun tafyirt s teqbaylit. Mazal ad d-nkemmel awal ɣef wezrar n umawal sakin ad d-nuɣal s inelmaden ed wayen lemden i wakken deg taggara ad tt-nekfu s wayen ay d-tewwi termit-a i tlugant n tira n tmaziɣt deg tiddukla imedyazen…

Azrar n umawal : I wakken ad yecfu yiwen ɣef wawal ilaq ad t-yessexdam aṭas neɣ ad as-isell aṭas. Ihi deg wezrar n umawal lmeɛna macci deg wumuɣ n wawalen ara ḥefḍen yinelmaden d aḥfaḍ kan acku ɣas ad ten-ḥefḍen deg teswiɛt ad uɣalen ad ten-ttun. Sakin i wakken ad ilin wawalen ara lemden d wid ay ɣef ara cfun ilaq ad ilin d wid ara yezgen deg lehduṛ-nsen. S wakk-a ilaq ad ilin d awalen n wayen tteḥwijin medden s waṭas. Ɣas ad yili unelmad yeḥwaj ugar, ad yissin kan llsisan n tutlayt deg tjeṛṛumt ed tseftit sakin ad yissin ad inadi weḥd-s neɣ ad yesteqsi weḥd-s. Deg tazwara xemmeɣ s umuɣ n 1500 n wawalen : 1000 d ismawen ma 500 d imyagen ma neḥseb-d iferdisen yellan ya deg tjeṛṛumt d tizelɣiwin am tenzaɣ ed yimerna… Am wakken twalam nebda s tmawalt n twacult. Amawal yebḍa d taɣulin (domaines) : tawacult, tudert deg axxam, tamdint, taddart, agama, tafekka n wemdan, ismawen n dduzan d ijeqduṛen, lḥirfat, tikta, idles, zzhu, leɛwayed, tazmert… Ma yella d asexdem-nsen yettas-d deg tefyirin yettilin d imedyaten deg temsirin n tjeṛṛumt, n tseftit d yilugan n tira. Maca yella daɣen wayen ay asen-d-fkiɣ d umuɣen ad ten-issinen d timawalin timecṭuḥin : tamawalt n yiɣersiwen, tamawalt n ugama… Ad yili wemḍan n wawalen ay d-yeddan deg uselmed yejba i 2000. D ayen ay yis yezmer ad yebdu win yebɣan s tidet ad yemmeslay taqbaylit.

Ger wayen yessebɣasen ed wayen yessefcalen : Asmi nebda, llan deg 13 yid-sen. Asmi nekfa aselmed gran-d tlata yinelmaden. Sin yergazen ed yiwet tmeṭṭut. Wiyaḍ ur kemmlen ara. Acuɣer ? Mer d yiwet ssebba kan ay yellan ad ḥebsen ɣef webrid. Netta macci akka ay teḍra. Mkul yiwen amek maca yiwen yiwen ay ttensaren. Tamsalt-a ssneɣ-tt yakan ama mi ɣriɣ ama mi sseɣreɣ. Cfiɣ ṛuḥeɣ deg 1998 ad d-ɣreɣ tasenselkimt s yedrimen. Nebda deg 25 yid-neɣ. Asmi d-yewweḍ ukayad negra-d ala deg 14. Leqraya deg tmurt tessnem-tt. Yiwen wass steqsaɣ inelmaden-iw n tesdawit, nniɣ-asen : “ I lukan ad awen-yini yiwen uɣalem s ixxamen-nwen ar taggara useggas tasem-d ad tawim aderdas ? Ad tqeblem ? ” Meṛṛa suɣen-d : “Iban !”. Daɣ nekni deg tmurt-nneɣ s umata, ɣas ad walin madden nnfeɛ deg welmad drus ara yefken leɛtab I yiman-nsen ad kemmlen amecwaṛ ar d awḍen…. Akk-a ay teḍra d kra seg yinelmaden-iw. Ma cfiɣ tamezwarut d tinna akken yebɣan ad as-tefhem i temɣart-is, wissen testeɛgez neɣ tɣil ad telmed s txatemt n Sidna Sliman. Sakin, tinna yellan s tadist, ɣas teẓwer, yusa-d unebdu, d ayyur n yulyu, tḥulfa s lqella n tezmert ur tkemmel ara. Yerna ur zmireɣ ara ad ẓreɣ s ttbut acku mkul wa d iɣeblan-is, mkul wa amek ay iga lxaṭer-is. ẓriɣ kan am deg termiyin yezwaren ta, d ayen yessefcalen acku nekk fkiɣ leɛtab i yiman-iw ama s uheyyi, ama deg usefhem yerna yebɛed wanseg ay d-ttaseɣ ad ten-sseɣreɣ. Mer macci d timeɣnest, tidet kan, am win yeskerkiren aɣyul deg tsawent. Ini kan seg tama nniḍen nniɣ-as deg wul-iw tlata-nni ay d-yegran stahlen ad kemmleɣ yid-sen ar taggara. Tamezwarut aselmed-nni am win ara yefken lɛahed ilaq ad t-iweffi tis snat mer ay ten-jjiɣ ɣur-i amzun texṣer-iten teqbaylit. Yerna ɣas ur as-sḥesbeɣ ara : d widen deg taggara ay d-yeḍḥan d inagan neɣ d amektal n termit-iw ma tessaweḍ neɣ ala. Tamezwarut mi ara waliɣ azal ay fkan i welmad n teqbaylit akken yebɣu yili d ayen yessefṛaḥen : d tidet ur gin ara akk akken “waɛṛaben” n Ldzayer maca lmeɛna zemren ad ilin widen ara yebɣun ad tt-lemden, ad tt-qadṛen. Tis snat llant tɣawsiwin ay d-lemdeɣ ɣef tmaziɣt sɣur win ḥesbeɣ d “Aɛṛab“ kan. Dɣa yella yiwen seg Jijel zgiɣ ttawiɣ-d yid-s iskasiyen ɣef temkant n tmaziɣt deg Ldzayer. Deg tmurt-nsen, ttmeslayen s taɛṛabt. Ḥessben iman-nsen d Aɛṛaben. Maca deg tantala-sen aṭas n wawalen n tmaziɣt. Qrib ayen akk yettilin deg wexxam aqdim deg tuddar-nsen mazal-it s tmaziɣt. Amawal n tlawin yemmuzeɣ kteṛ n win n yergazen. Yenna-iyi-d yiwen wass “ zemreɣ ad ak-d-afeɣ awalen n tmaziɣt deg tentala-nneɣ ur ten-tettafeḍ ara deg tentaliyin timaziɣin akk ”. Amek yeẓra ? Yenna-iyi-d yesteqsa. Win ara ten-id-yafen… d asenfaṛ yelhan i tesnilsit tamaziɣt. Nekk macci d lḥirfa-w maca wid teɛna temsalt s umata smenyafen ad d-nadin kan ayen yellan deg tektabin. Ladɣa imi netta s timmad-is yetthabi ad iṛuḥ ɣer din acku qrib seg wasmi ay d-teɣli rrehba ɣef tmurt ur iṛuḥ ɣer din. Ɣas akken d “Aɛṛaben”, at temdint sawalen-asen “Leqbayel”. Yenna-iyi-d ula d Ijijliyen n temdint mi ara ṛuḥen ɣer Msila, qqaren-asen at Msila : “ ṛahum jaw Leqbayel ”. Ziɣ armi tɣaḍ tentala-s inegren deg tmaneɣt, ur tt-ttmeslayen ara Yijijliyen n Lɛaṣima ay yefhem tettɣaḍ teqbaylit ineggren cwiṭ cwiṭ. Tanelmadt ay ikemmlen armi d taggara tessaweḍ ad tawi arraz deg ukayad n taggara. S wayen telmed tezmer ad tkemmel…

Lateṛ n termit deg tlugant n tira : Seg wasmi bdan Leqbayel ttarun tutlayt-nsen ar ass-a mazal imurar n timawit ttarzen-ten-id ɣer deffir. Deg wacu ? Mazal ar tura amur ameqqran n wid yettarun taqbaylit ttmalen ger cwiṭ ed waṭas ɣer tira ara asen-d-yesmektin tamsiselt (phonétique) amzun ilaq ilaq ad nettaru kan akken ay d-nessenṭaq. Netta macci d ta ay tawuri (fonction) n yilugan n tira. Ma ulac ddem kan agemmay ad d-teɣreḍ taqbaylit. D ilugan n tira ara yesduklen tutlayt, ara yerren tefyirt tettwafham, ara yesduklen ger madden tira… Azal n 40 yiseggasen ay-a segmi yebda lebni ed weskasi ɣef yilugan n tira. Ar ass-a mazal yettkemmil. Yella wanda cwiṭ cwiṭ yesseqrab-d weskasi tikta ta ɣer ta armi d-yeḍra lufeq meqqren ɣef ulugen. D ayen yezgan tura. Ɣas mazal ur nezmir ara d-nemmeslay ɣef tlugent yemmden n dima imi llan kra n ttsaṣil, ɣas drus-iten, ay deg mgarrdent tluganin yellan deg wenrar. Anseg ay d-yekka way-a ? Tamezwarut zik ulac n tsusut n ddula i irefden tamaziɣt. D imeɣnasen yettarun, d imussnawen n tutlayt ay yerẓan aqerru-nsen deg lḥif ed wurrif i wakken ad tesɛu tmaziɣt tira. Tis snat ɣas myussanen, wid ixedmen ɣef tira, tikwal mbaɛaden, tikwal ttemyasamen, tikwal macci ɣef yiwen llsas ay bnan tiluganin-nsen. Yerna tidet kan, nekni s Leqbayel mkul wa yeqqar d ibawen-iw kan ay yettewwan. Yuɣ lḥal ur sɛin leqbayel taɣennant ! Meɛna, simmal yettban-d wayen icerken ugar taqbaylit deg tira. Ayen ara tt-yesduklen ugar d takti tatrart ay d-yettawin kra n yilugan n tira seg tjeṛṛumt, tettas-d ẓẓayet i kra. Ma nuɣal ɣer termit-a, greɣ tamawt i wakken ad ssisehleɣ aselmed nezmer tikwal ad d-nekkes taɛkemt i tira akken ad tt-ibibb ususru. D acu d lmeɛna-s ? Lmeɛna-s nezmer s tjeṛṛumt ad neslugen tira i wakken ad yifsus wemḍan n yilugan n tira ɣas ad yennerni wemḍan n yilugan n ususru am deg tutlayin tatrarin. D ayen ay xedmeɣ deg uselmed-a sakin mi nemcawaṛ deg tiddukla, nufa d tidet d ayen inefɛen aselmed n teqbaylit ula i Leqbayel yerna ad d-yesban lebni n tutlayt s liser deg tjeṛṛumt sakin ad grin kra n yilugan n ususru : d tannumi kan. Ad d-awiɣ deg taggara kra n yimedyaten : Amezwaru : ur ilaq ara ad tbeddel tira n wemqim udmawan arusrid mi ara tbeddel tseftit : yenna-am, nnan-am, ad am-yini… macci : yenna-yam, nnan-am, a m-yini. Amedya wis sin ɣef tzelɣa n usiwel : Deg tira yiwet tzelɣa n usiwel kan ay yellan d “a”. Deg usuru llant snat : [a] , [ay]. Ma d alugen : a + tiɣri ==> [ ay ] / a + targalt ==> [ a ]. Amedya nniḍen d win n tseftit yessden : ad taru tseftit yessden s tussda n tergalt tis snat : kcem ==> keccem / bḍu ==> beḍḍu ɣas deg ususru : [ keččem ] / [ beṭṭu ]. Akken daɣen deg temsalt n weslugen n tira n wemqim amassaɣ “ay” akken ara t-nsemgirred ed tenzeɣt “ i ”. Wi d kra n yimedyaten wamma umuɣ ɣezzif…

Awal aneggaru : Deg taggara n welmad nexdem akayad n taggara. Yeḥder unemhal n temkarḍit taɣelnawt, Mass Amine Zaoui ed kra n ikudar n useqqamu unnig n timmuzɣa, gar-asen Mass Hamid Bilek ed umaru amatu Mass Youcef Merahi. Ur tessaweḍ ara termit-a ad d-tili armi ay aɣ-d-ullent snat tsudiwin-a n ddula. S wacu ara nekfu awal ? Yiwet : wid yebɣan ad lemden lemden xersum ayen ara ten-yallen ad kemmlen. Tis snat, ma nufa-as-d i tmaziɣt tamkant ay yes ara tenfeɛ macci ala Leqbayel ay izemren ad tt-lemden. Tis tlata, tallalt n ddula tlaq, ɣas mazal txuṣṣ, nezmer ad nexdem s wayen yellan acku win ay tt-yebɣan yettnadi amek ma d win ay tt-yugin yeqqar kan ulamek.

Hamid OUBAGHA ( Tiddukla Tadelsant IMEDYAZEN)

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